Joseph Samuel Bloch

Considered an Orthodox rabbi, he nevertheless did not wear a kippah.

Marcus Lehmann

An Orthodox rabbi, Rav Lehmann fought against the growing Reform movement.  He continued to wear a black velvet kippah even when some of his contemporaries did not.

Meyer Kayserling

Rav Kayserling followed the late 19th Century practice of not wearing a head covering at all.

Aron Mendes Chumaceiro

Another tricorn hat.  I hate to say it, but I think this is what Dutch Jews wore.

Samson Raphael Hirsch

Rav Hirsch had "considerable" influence on modern Orthodox Judaism.  And he wore a small black velvet kippah.

Jacob Ettlinger

Another small black velvet kippah, so typical of the mid-19th century.  I think I'm starting to see the answer to my original question.

David de Aaron de Sola

The only rabbi with a portrait from Amsterdam.  Goodness, I hoep this isn't what Dutch Jews wore.  Frankly, his hat doesn't look Jewish at all, although I'm not sure the Russian fur caps or turbans do either.

Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport

Shown here wearing a small black velvet kippah, he was also painted wearing a large Russian fur hat.  This makes me wonder whether there wasn't a greater variation among all rabbis in the 19th century.  My data is too limited.

Israel Lipschitz

This hat seems much more similar to the smaller black velvet kippot that would sweep Europe later on.

Moses Sofer

Moving back to the late 18th century in Germany, we see Rav Sofer wearing the same large fur hat as other Jews of the early 19th century.


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